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18.4 Functions Acting as Random Number Generators

A user-specified function can be declared to act as a (pseudo) random number generator (PRNG) by giving it a name that ends in _rng. Giving a function a name that ends in _rng allows it to access built-in functions and user-defined functions that end in _rng, which includes all the built-in PRNG functions. Only functions ending in _rng are able access the built-in PRNG functions. The use of functions ending in _rng must therefore be restricted to transformed data and generated quantities blocks like other PRNG functions; they may also be used in the bodies of other user-defined functions ending in _rng.

For example, the following function generates an \(N \times K\) data matrix, the first column of which is filled with 1 values for the intercept and the remaining entries of which have values drawn from a standard normal PRNG.

matrix predictors_rng(int N, int K) {
  matrix[N, K] x;
  for (n in 1:N) {
    x[n, 1] = 1.0;  // intercept
    for (k in 2:K)
      x[n, k] = normal_rng(0, 1);
  return x;

The following function defines a simulator for regression outcomes based on a data matrix x, coefficients beta, and noise scale sigma.

vector regression_rng(vector beta, matrix x, real sigma) {
  vector[rows(x)] y;
  vector[rows(x)] mu;
  mu = x * beta;
  for (n in 1:rows(x))
    y[n] = normal_rng(mu[n], sigma);
  return y;

These might be used in a generated quantity block to simulate some fake data from a fitted regression model as follows.

parameters {
  vector[K] beta;
  real<lower=0> sigma;
generated quantities {
  matrix[N_sim, K] x_sim;
  vector[N_sim] y_sim;
  x_sim = predictors_rng(N_sim, K);
  y_sim = regression_rng(beta, x_sim, sigma);

A more sophisticated simulation might fit a multivariate normal to the predictors x and use the resulting parameters to generate multivariate normal draws for x_sim.