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7.1 The benefits of marginalization

Although it requires some algebra on the joint probability function, a pleasant byproduct of the required calculations is the posterior expectation of the marginalized variable, which is often the quantity of interest for a model. This allows far greater exploration of the tails of the distribution as well as more efficient sampling on an iteration-by-iteration basis because the expectation at all possible values is being used rather than itself being estimated through sampling a discrete parameter.

Standard optimization algorithms, including expectation maximization (EM), are often provided in applied statistics papers to describe maximum likelihood estimation algorithms. Such derivations provide exactly the marginalization needed for coding the model in Stan.