This is an old version, view current version.

## 4.6 Complex special functions

The following functions are specific to complex numbers other than absolute value, which has a specific meaning for complex numbers.

real abs(complex z)
Return the absolute value of z, also known as the modulus or magnitude, which for $$z = x + yi$$ is $\textrm{abs}(z) = \sqrt{x^2 + y^2}.$
Available since 2.28

real arg(complex z)
Return the phase angle (in radians) of z, which for $$z = x + yi$$ is $\textrm{arg}(z) = \textrm{atan2}(y, x) = \textrm{atan}(y / x).$
Available since 2.28

real norm(complex z)
Return the Euclidean norm of z, which is its absolute value squared, and which for $$z = x + yi$$ is $\textrm{norm}(z) = \textrm{abs}^2(z) = x^2 + y^2.$
Available since 2.28

complex conj(complex z)
Return the complex conjugate of z, which negates the imaginary component, so that if $$z = x + yi$$, $\textrm{conj}(z) = x - yi.$
Available since 2.28

complex proj(complex z)
Return the projection of z onto the Riemann sphere, which for $$z = x + yi$$ is $\textrm{proj}(z) = \begin{cases} z & \textrm{if} \ z \ \textrm{is finite, and} \\ 0 + \textrm{sign}(y)i & \textrm{otherwise,} \end{cases}$ where $$\textrm{sign}(y)$$ is -1 if $$y$$ is negative and 1 otherwise.
Available since 2.28

complex polar(real r, real theta)
Return the complex number with magnitude (absolute value) r and phase angle theta.
Available since 2.28