# Removed Features

This chapter lists functionalities that were once present in the language but have since been removed, along with how to replace them.

`lp__`

variable

*Removed*: The variable `lp__`

is no longer available for direct access or manipulation.

*Replacement*: General manipulation of the value of the `lp__`

variable is not allowed, but

` lp__ <- lp__ + e;`

can be replaced with

`target += e;`

The value of `lp__`

is available through the no-argument function `target()`

.

## Assignment with `<-`

*Removed*: The operator `<-`

for assignment, e.g.,

` a <- b;`

is no longer available.

*Replacement*: The new syntax uses the operator `=`

for assignment, e.g.,

` a = b;`

*Removed In*: Stan 2.33

`increment_log_prob`

statement

*Removed*: The `increment_log_prob(u)`

statement for incrementing the log density accumulator by `u`

is no longer available.

*Replacement*: Replace the above statement with

`target += u;`

*Removed In*: Stan 2.33

`get_lp()`

function

*Removed*: The built-in no-argument function `get_lp()`

is no longer available.

*Replacement*: Use the no-argument function `target()`

instead.

*Removed In*: Stan 2.33

`_log`

density and mass functions

*Removed*: Formerly, the probability function for the distribution `foo`

would be applied to an outcome variable `y`

and sequence of zero or more parameters `...`

to produce the expression `foo_log(y, ...)`

. This suffix is no longer a special value.

*Replacement*: If `y`

can be a real value (including vectors or matrices), replace

` foo_log(y, ...)`

with the log probability density function notation

` foo_lpdf(y | ...).`

If `y`

must be an integer (including arrays), instead replace

` foo_log(y, ...`

with the log probability mass function

` foo_lpmf(y | ...).`

*Removed In*: Stan 2.33

`cdf_log`

and `ccdf_log`

cumulative distribution functions

*Removed*: The log cumulative distribution and complementary cumulative distribution functions for a distribution `foo`

were formerly written as `foo_cdf_log`

and `foo_ccdf_log`

.

*Replacement*:

Replace `foo_cdf_log(y, ...)`

with `foo_lcdf(y | ...)`

.

Replace `foo_ccdf_log(y, ...)`

with `foo_lccdf(y | ...)`

.

## User-defined function with `_log`

suffix

*Removed*: A user-defined function ending in `_log`

can be no longer be used in sampling statements.

*Replacement*: Replace the `_log`

suffix with `_lpdf`

for density functions or `_lpmf`

for mass functions in the user-defined function.

*Removed In*: Stan 2.33

Note: Following Stan 2.33, users can stil define a function ending in `_log`

, it simply no longer has a special meaning or is supported in the `~`

syntax.

`if_else`

function

*Removed*: The function `if_else`

is no longer available.

*Replacement*: Use the conditional operator which allows more flexibility in the types of `b`

and `c`

and is much more efficient in that it only evaluates whichever of `b`

or `c`

is returned.

` x = if_else(a, b, c);`

with

` x = a ? b : c;`

*Removed In*: Stan 2.33

## Character `#`

as comment prefix

*Removed*: The use of `#`

for line-based comments is no longer permitted. `#`

may only be used for `#include`

statements.

*Replacement*: Use a pair of forward slashes, `//`

, for line comments.

*Removed In*: Stan 2.33

## Postfix brackets array syntax

Before Stan 2.26, arrays were declared by writing syntax after the variable.

*Removed*: The use of array declarations like

```
int n[5];
real a[3, 4];
real<lower=0> z[5, 4, 2];
vector[7] mu[3];
matrix[7, 2] mu[15, 12];
cholesky_factor_cov[5, 6] mu[2, 3, 4];
```

*Replacement*: The use of the `array`

keyword, which replaces the above examples with

```
array[5] int n;
array[3, 4] real a;
array[5, 4, 2] real<lower=0> z;
array[3] vector[7] mu;
array[15, 12] matrix[7, 2] mu;
array[2, 3, 4] cholesky_factor_cov[5, 6] mu;
```

*Removed In*: Stan 2.33

## Nested multiple indexing in assignments

Stan interprets nested indexing in assingments as flat indexing so that a statement like

`1] = b; a[:][`

is the same as

`1] = b; a[:,`

However, this is inconsistent with multiple indexing rules.

To avoid confusion nested multiple indexing in assignment became an error in Stan 2.33. Nesting single indexing is still allowed as it cannot lead to ambiguity.

*Removed In*: Stan 2.33

## Real values in conditionals

*Removed*: Using a real value in a conditional is no longer permitted.

```
real x = 1.0;
if (x) {
```

The value was interpreted as true if it is nonzero.

*Replacement*: For the exact equivalent, use a comparison operator to make the intent clear.

```
real x = 1.0;
if (x != 0) {
```

However, one should keep in mind that floating point calculations are subject to rounding errors and precise equality is fragile. It is worth considering whether the more robust alternative `abs(x) < machine_precision()`

is appropriate for the use case.

*Removed In*: Stan 2.34