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  1. This function used to be called get_lp(), but that name has been deprecated; using it will print a warning. The function get_lp() will be removed in a future release.↩︎

  2. Dividing by \(N\) rather than \((N-1)\) produces a maximum likelihood estimate of variance, which is biased to underestimate variance.↩︎

  3. The softmax function is so called because in the limit as \(y_n \rightarrow \infty\) with \(y_m\) for \(m \neq n\) held constant, the result tends toward the “one-hot” vector \(\theta\) with \(\theta_n = 1\) and \(\theta_m = 0\) for \(m \neq n\), thus providing a “soft” version of the maximum function.↩︎

  4. It is possible to build up a valid L within Stan, but that would then require Jacobian adjustments to imply the intended posterior.↩︎