23.8 Functions

Functions are laid out the same way as in languages such as Java and C++. For example,

real foo(real x, real y) {
  return sqrt(x * log(y));

The return type is flush left, the parentheses for the arguments are adjacent to the arguments and function name, and there is a space after the comma for arguments after the first. The open curly brace for the body is on the same line as the function name, following the layout of loops and conditionals. The body itself is indented; here we use two spaces. The close curly brace appears on its own line.

If function names or argument lists are long, they can be written as

function_to_do_some_hairy_algebra(matrix thingamabob,
                                  vector doohickey2) {

The function starts a new line, under the type. The arguments are aligned under each other.

Function documentation should follow the Javadoc and Doxygen styles. Here’s an example repeated from the documenting functions section.

 * Return a data matrix of specified size with rows
 * corresponding to items and the first column filled
 * with the value 1 to represent the intercept and the
 * remaining columns randomly filled with unit-normal draws.
 * @param N Number of rows correspond to data items
 * @param K Number of predictors, counting the intercept, per
 *          item.
 * @return Simulated predictor matrix.
matrix predictors_rng(int N, int K) {

The open comment is /**, asterisks are aligned below the first asterisk of the open comment, and the end comment */ is also aligned on the asterisk. The tags @param and @return are used to label function arguments (i.e., parameters) and return values.