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## 9.1 Relation to Finite Mixture Models

As mentioned in the clustering section, clustering models and finite mixture models are really just two sides of the same coin. The “soft” $$K$$-means model described in the next section is a normal mixture model (with varying assumptions about covariance in higher dimensions leading to variants of $$K$$-means). Latent Dirichlet allocation is a mixed-membership multinomial mixture.