CmdStanPy Workflow

The statistical modeling enterprise has two principal modalities: development and production. The focus of development is model building, comparison, and validation. Many models are written and fitted to many kinds of data. The focus of production is using a trusted model on real-world data to obtain estimates for decision-making. In both modalities, the essential workflow remains the same: compile a Stan model, assemble input data, do inference on the model conditioned on the data, and validate, access, and export the results.

Model development and testing is an open-ended process, usually requiring many iterations of developing a model, fitting the data, and evaluating the results. Since more user time is spent in model development, CmdStanPy defaults favor development mode. CmdStan is file-based interface. On the assumption that model development will require many successive runs of a model, by default, outputs are written to a temporary directory to avoid filling up the filesystem with unneeded CmdStan output files. Non-default options allow all filepaths to be fully specified so that scripts can be used to distribute analysis jobs across nodes and machines.

The Bayesian workflow for model comparison and model expansion provides a framework for model development, much of which also applies to monitoring model performance in production. The following sections describe the process of building, running, and managing the resulting inference for a single model and set of inputs.

Compile the Stan model

The: CmdStanModel class provides methods to compile and run the Stan program. A CmdStanModel object can be instantiated by specifying either a Stan file or the executable file, or both. If only the Stan file path is specified, the constructor will check for the existence of a correspondingly named exe file in the same directory. If found, it will use this as the exe file path.

By default, when a CmdStanModel object is instantiated from a Stan file, the constructor will compile the model as needed. The constructor argument compile controls this behavior.

  • compile=False: never compile the Stan file.

  • compile="Force": always compile the Stan file.

  • compile=True: (default) compile the Stan file as needed, i.e., if no exe file exists or if the Stan file is newer than the exe file.

import os
from cmdstanpy import CmdStanModel

my_stanfile = os.path.join('.', 'my_model.stan')
my_model = CmdStanModel(stan_file=my_stanfile)

The CmdStanModel class also provides the compile() method, which can be called at any point to (re)compile the model as needed.

Model compilation is carried out via the GNU Make build tool. The CmdStan makefile contains a set of general rules which specify the dependencies between the Stan program and the Stan platform components and low-level libraries. Optional behaviors can be specified by use of variables which are passed in to the make command as name, value pairs.

Model compilation is done in two steps:

  • The stanc compiler translates the Stan program to C++.

  • The C++ compiler compiles the generated code and links in the necessary supporting libraries.

Therefore, both the constructor and the compile method allow optional arguments stanc_options and cpp_options which specify options for each compilation step. Options are specified as a Python dictionary mapping compiler option names to appropriate values.

In order parallelize within-chain computations using the Stan language reduce_sum function, or to parallelize running the NUTS-HMC sampler across chains, the Stan model must be compiled with C++ compiler flag STAN_THREADS. While any value can be used, we recommend the value True, e.g.:

import os
from cmdstanpy import CmdStanModel

my_stanfile = os.path.join('.', 'my_model.stan')
my_model = CmdStanModel(stan_file=my_stanfile, cpp_options={'STAN_THREADS':'true'})

Assemble input and initialization data

CmdStan is file-based interface, therefore all model input and initialization data must be supplied as JSON files, as described in the CmdStan User’s Guide.

CmdStanPy inference methods allow inputs and initializations to be specified as in-memory Python dictionary objects which are then converted to JSON via the utility function cmdstanpy.write_stan_json(). This method should be used to create JSON input files whenever these inputs contain either a collection compatible with numpy arrays or pandas.Series.

Run the CmdStan inference engine

For each CmdStan inference method, there is a corresponding method on the CmdStanModel class. An example of each is provided in the next section.

Validate, view, export the inference engine outputs

The inference method-specific results objects CmdStanMCMC, CmdStanPathfinder, CmdStanVB, CmdStanMLE, and CmdStanGQ contain the CmdStan method configuration information and the location of all output files produced. The provide a common set methods for accessing the inference results and metadata, as well as method-specific informational properties and methods.objects

Output data

The resulting Stan CSV file or set of files are assembled into an inference result object.

The objects provide accessor methods which return this information either as tabular data (i.e., in terms of the per-chain CSV file rows and columns), or as structured objects which correspond to the variables in the Stan model and the individual diagnostics produced by the inference method.

The stan_variables method returns a Python dict over all Stan model variables, see stan_variables().

The stan_variable method returns a single model variable as a numpy.ndarray object with the same structure (per draw) as the Stan program variable, see stan_variable().

The method_variables method returns a Python dict over all inference method variables, cf method_variables()

The output from the methods CmdStanMCMC and CmdStanGQ return the sample contents in tabular form, see draws() and draws_pd(). Similarly, the draws_xr() method returns the sample contents as an xarray.Dataset which is a mapping from variable names to their respective values.