25.10 Aggregating common subexpressions

If an expression is calculated once, the value should be saved and reused wherever possible. That is, rather than using exp(theta) in multiple places, declare a local variable to store its value and reuse the local variable.

Another case that may not be so obvious is with two multilevel parameters, say a[ii[n]] + b[jj[n]]. If a and b are small (i.e., do not have many levels), then a table a_b of their sums can be created, with

matrix[size(a), size(b)] a_b;
for (i in 1:size(a)) {
  for (j in 1:size(b)) {
    a_b[i, j] = a[i] + b[j];

Then the sum can be replaced with a_b[ii[n], jj[n]].